Neo Nazie shock troops to start war with Russia

The tragedy in Odessa where more than forty people were burned alive by pro-Kiev activists has left Western leaders unimpressed. Why would the West register no reaction and how far could its support of the Kiev junta go? We are discussing it with Alexander Rogers, Ukrainian political analyst coming to us from Donetsk, and Dušan Janjić, Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Sciences in Belgrade, Serbia.

The punitive operation waged by the West-supported Kiev authorities in the Southeastern regions of Ukraine already resulted in hundreds of civilian deaths and – a horrible tragedy in the Southern port city of Odessa where more than forty people were burned alive by the so-called anti-separatist activists.

The awful news, however, has left Western leaders unperturbed. The US President Barack Obama has even maintained that Ukrainian authorities have the right to “restore order” in the east of Ukraine.

Dmitry Peskov, the spokesman of the Russian President, described Obama’s remark as utterly cynical and said that both the Kiev authorities and their backers in the West were directly responsible for Odessa atrocities.

Dušan Janjić:

The crisis is at the beginning. It will take time. There will be, unfortunately, so many crimes and so many victims before the international so-called morale or ethics restart working.

The involvement of the Western powers in the crisis in the former Yugoslavia, was it as open as we are witnessing it in Ukraine?

It was not so open. At the beginning the Western countries haven’t got the one voice about the Yugoslav crisis. Germany, Austria, some Western countries were proactive, they first started supporting some separatists from Slovenia and Croatia and the others were silent. From 1994 the West was unified. Basically, the EU and the US were talking with one voice.

Comparing the Ukraine’s case and the Yugoslav case, the West has a completely different approach. At that time the West did not support the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia. It was supporting the separatism and the newborn republican sovereignty.

People who are saying they are governing the country, they seem to be quite helpless in reinstating order. Are they really helpless or is it just not their objective to maintain order?

For the moment it looks that it is right, but I’m not sure.

When we were watching the debates in the UN Security Council, it looked like the Western representatives just wouldn’t listen to the facts.

This is really a mess. At this moment, I think that all the sides, including the Security Council’s members are trying to take good positions for the continuation of the crisis. It is something which basically became the habit in the Security Council. Usually we will find somebody – two or three countries – blocking the others.

Alexander Rogers:

I’m in Donetsk now. I’m coordinating the gathering of information. I have information about mercenaries from the Western countries fighting on the side of Kiev.

And what is the current situation now?

Their anti-terrorist operation has failed. In all the cities the regular army doesn’t want to fight their own people. The Nazis – the National Guard – are fighting very badly. They kill innocent people. And if they see armed militias, they run.

And how many people have been killed?

About 100.

The Western media keeps saying that there are Russian mercenaries and the Russian regular army fighting there?

No, that isn’t true. There is no evidence of the Russian support. Many people would want the Russian support, but they don’t have it.

You said that there are someone we actually tend to call the neo-Nazis.

Yes, the Nazis are present. They formed the National Guard. I have much information about them killing innocent people and stealing goods and food. They are like marauders.

Do you happen to have any information as to whether there are Western military advisors in the region?

They are present in the regions. I have information about the western-made weapons. I have information about people talking English and German. I have information about sniper weapons captured by the militias.

Why did the Western governments have such a lukewarm reaction to that?

I think the US is trying to establish in Ukraine a government controlled by the US to make a confrontation against Russia, to invite it to war and push it to defend people in Ukraine against the Nazis. And then, this will give a new argumentation for the existence of NATO and a new US military budget. Big corporations want a new military budget and they need war to make money.


Moscow’s Human Abuses White Book

Moscow releases ‘White Book’ on human rights abuses in crisis-torn Ukraine

Published time: May 05, 2014 12:32

Riot policemen stand guard as they are hit by fire caused by molotov cocktails hurled by anti-government protesters during clashes in Kiev February 18, 2014 (Reuters / Stringer)

Riot policemen stand guard as they are hit by fire caused by molotov cocktails hurled by anti-government protesters during clashes in Kiev February 18, 2014 (Reuters / Stringer)

A report on human rights violations, law abuses, use of torture, inhuman treatment and other crimes in Ukraine from the end of November 2013 to the end of March 2014, a so called ‘White Book’, has been presented by the Russian Interior Ministry.

The authors compiled their facts by carefully monitoring Ukrainian, Russian and some Western media reports. The study also considered statements from Ukraine’s “new government” and their supporters, and numerous eyewitness accounts, including those posted on the internet. They also recorded observations and interviews with people on the scene, and those collected by non-governmental organizations: The Foundation for Researching Problems in Democracy, and the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights.

The study accuses those “who cynically, in pursuit of their own selfish interests …and pseudo-democratic demagogy, are plunging a multimillion multi-ethnic Ukrainian population into extremism, lawlessness, and a deep crisis of national identity.”

According to the authors, the aim of the document is “to focus on facts which the international community and key international human rights bodies have not shown proper and impartial attention to.”

“The onslaught of racism, xenophobia, ethnic intolerance, the glorification of the Nazis and their Banderite sycophants should be brought to a speedy end through the united efforts of the Ukrainian people and the international community,” it adds.

The document states that the alternative may have “devastating consequences for peace, stability, and democratic development in Europe.” That’s why it’s “necessary to prevent a further escalation of this situation,” it adds.

The document, written in Russian and English, details examples of violations to the right to life and violations of public order and safety, as well as the use of torture, inhuman treatment and other crimes committed in the period from the end of November 2013 to the end of March 2014. It was presented to Russian President Vladimir Putin on Monday.

A protester hurls a molotov cocktail towards police from the barricades at Independence square in Kiev on February 19, 2014 (AFP Photo / Louisa Gouliamaki)

A protester hurls a molotov cocktail towards police from the barricades at Independence square in Kiev on February 19, 2014 (AFP Photo / Louisa Gouliamaki)


According to the authors of the study, the list of the “most flagrant violations of fundamental international norms by ultranationalist, neo-Nazi, and extremist forces which have monopolized the Euromaidan protests, while far from being exhaustive, nevertheless gives enough grounds to claim that such violations were widespread.”

Another violation, according to the authors of the ‘White Book’, is the “interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign state.”

Among the violations that took place in Ukraine, the ‘White Book’ mentions weapons, equipment, and the tactics of the Euromaidan participants. It also presents evidence of deliberately committed violence and provocations by the so-called “Peaceful demonstrators.”

Meanwhile, Discrimination along ethnic and linguistic lines, xenophobia and racial extremism and incitement of racial hatred are also mentioned in the study, along with religious intolerance, including threats to the Russian Orthodox Church.

The document also mentions the serious restrictions on the freedom of media and censorship in Ukraine. Violations of the right to freedom of thought and belief, including political beliefs, and violations of the right to express them are also mentioned in the ‘White Book’

“The history of the twentieth century has given tragic lessons which would be irresponsible and also at times just unlawful to ignore. The ‘White Book’ is a signal to those who have forgotten this or pretend to forget,” the document states.

Skirmishes in Ukraine Commences after Brennan’s Visit

Military storm airfield, town in eastern Ukraine, killed, wounded reported – protesters

Published time: April 15, 2014 13:27
Edited time: April 15, 2014 16:27

Ukranian troops stand guard at a checkpoint near the city of Izium in the Kharkiv region of east Ukraine April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Maks Levin)

Ukranian troops stand guard at a checkpoint near the city of Izium in the Kharkiv region of east Ukraine April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Maks Levin)

Ukrainian troops have seized an airfield in the eastern city of Kramatorsk, said anti-government protesters. Four people were killed and two injured, activists added. At the same time Slavyansk is being raided by the Ukrainian military.


Coup-imposed President Aleksandr Turchinov said that he received a telephone call confirming the military have seized the airfield in Kramatorsk.

Ukrainian troops approached the military airfield in armored personnel carriers between the eastern cities of Kramatorsk and Slavyansk, the people’s militia located at the airfield told RIA Novosti on the phone.

“They started negotiating with the people’s militia, which is in control of the airfield. The shooting started unexpectedly. There are injured among the people’s militia, and there may be deaths,” they said.

Ukrainian soldiers are seen near armored personnel carriers at a checkpoint near the town of Izium in Eastern Ukraine, April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Dmitry Madorsky)

Ukrainian soldiers are seen near armored personnel carriers at a checkpoint near the town of Izium in Eastern Ukraine, April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Dmitry Madorsky)


Other members of the militia have blocked the entrance to Kramatorsk and are ready to defend the city, the activists added.

The activists who controlled the base said they were forced to retreat.

However, the city is still under the control of the people’s militia, the activists said.

“We were forced out of the airfield, but the city itself is under our control, we won’t allow [the Ukrainian troops] to enter,” one of the activists told Interfax.

According to the Ukrainian army, planes and helicopters were mobilized during the raid to “defend the machinery, as it was not known how the [security operation] would end.”

Videos of military jets and helicopters flying over Kramatorsk, as the attack was launched, appeared on YouTube.

The activists who controlled the base said they were forced to retreat.

“There are about 60 units of armored vehicles. They have been preparing for several days, and now they started to storm [the airfield]. The protesters blocked their way, they started shooting, there are wounded. Our people retreated. There are about 15 tanks, the other units are armored personnel vehicles,” another member of the people’s militia told RIA.

In turn, the Ukrainian media, quoting the Ministry of Defense, announced a special operation in Kramatorsk on Tuesday. However, they provided no further details

Ukrainian troops stand guard at a checkpoint near the city of Izium in the Kharkiv region of east Ukraine April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Maks Levin)

Ukrainian troops stand guard at a checkpoint near the city of Izium in the Kharkiv region of east Ukraine April 15, 2014. (Reuters / Maks Levin)



At the same time, the eastern city of Slavyansk is being raided by Ukrainian troops, the head of the Donbass people’s militia, Sergey Tsyplakov, told RIA Novosti.

“Currently there is a major attack on Slavyansk, armored personnel vehicles are entering the city… there are many troops. The men are getting ready to defend [the city],” he said.

“There is a lot of military machinery here,” said one of the activists. “But the shooting hasn’t started yet.”

Anti-government protesters have been holding rallies in the south-eastern part of the country following the coup in Kiev on February 22. Activists have seized government buildings in most of the cities in the Donetsk region. On Sunday, the Kiev government launched a crackdown operation in Slavyansk. Following the event, Ukraine’s Security Council approved a full-scale security operation in the country’s eastern regions. On Monday, coup-imposed President Aleksandr Turchinov signed a decree to officially begin a “special anti-terrorist operation” in the east of the country.

A Ukrainian security authority, who was appointed chief of the security operation in eastern Ukraine, said on Tuesday that all activists who do not lay down their arms would be “destroyed.”

“They must be warned that if they do not lay down their arms, they will be destroyed,” Ukrainian Security Service (SBU) General Vasily Krutov told reporters as cited by AFP.

Moscow slammed Sunday’s order as “criminal.” It was issued by the coup-imposed acting President Aleksandr Turchinov, and approved a full-scale security operation in the country’s eastern regions.

Yandex Maps



Press the Red Light

Anti-Maidan protesters burn tires as they prepare for battle with Ukrainian special forces on the outskirts of the eastern Ukrainian city of Slavyansk on April 13, 2014. (AFP Photo / Anatoliy Stepanov)


   AFP Photo/Anatoliy Stepanov: Anti-Maiden Protesters Prepare For Battle Against Ukrainian Special Forces


Press The Red Light

An Emergency  U.N. Security Council Meeting was convened  at the request of Moscow  this past Sunday, 13 April, 2014  in order to discuss the escalation of tension in Ukraine that saw bloodshed of pro-Russian and pro-Maiden factions.  The acting president of Ukraine Alexander Turchinov made a decree authorizing Ukrainian military force to commence 14 April 2014 to begin the crackdown on the protests in East Ukraine. Moscow believes that this will undermine the talks that will be held to mediate the situation in Ukraine on the 17th of April, between Ukraine, Russia, the E.U. and the United States. At the Security Council Meeting Russian U.N. Ambassador asked the United States to tell the Ukrainian Government to press the red light, and encourage the Ukrainian government not to use force on its own people. Please support this petition to encourage the de-escalation of the situation in Ukraine.

Press the Red Light

Non Governmental Organizations a Tool of Destabilization in Egypt and Ukraine

Flags of the opposition wave  during a pre-election rally of Yushchenko supporters at Independence square in Kiev 06 November, 2004. (AFP Photo / Sergey Supinsky)

AFP/photo Sergey Supinsky :  Kiev:  anti-government protest at Independence Square, 2004, Ukraine.


Egypt may not be the first to express concern with the Non-Governmental Organizations  (NGOs) of  the West, and in particular the United States support of NGOs roles in their internal affairs;  however, with the simultaneous popular overthrow of former President Mohammed Morsi and the raid on NGO’s offices in 2012 , one may have been confused as to the connection between Morsi and the NGOs.  Considering Morsi’s support of Syrian invasion by jihadist forces condoned by the West and Middle Eastern entities, such as Qatar, one begins to note a possible parallel.

On Russia Today(, it was reported that the Commonwealth of Independent States Anti-Terrorism Committee  released a statement saying that the  E.U.  trains NGO agents for intrastate conflicts. The NGOs are usually affiliated with private military organizations and security agencies, and train a “wide range of saboteurs”.

79 delegates from 55 states were convened and heard the report from the CIS Anti-Terrorism Committee Chief Andrei Novikov, in Sochi, this past week in which it was revealed that 2000 schools across Europe are training refugees to participate in subversively political and military operations in their country of origin often under the moniker of religious education.

In Egypt, according to the website, Alan McDonell  reported two years ago (2012)  on the activities of the National Democratic Institute (NDI)  headed by former secretary Madeleine Albright, the International Republican Institute (IRI) headed by Senator John McCain, and Freedom House (FH) headed by William H. Taft IV  in Egypt during the anti-Morsi uprising there.

How can the NGO-Morsi  connection be possibly assessed?  The probability of access is given by the fact that Mohammad Morsi once worked for NASA as an metals precision engineer, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines.  He lectured at California State University, Northridge as an Assistant Professor. He has a natural born son of the United States. He left United States in 1985 to teach at Zagagag University and to more fully engage in Egyptian politics, running his first electoral candidancy in 2000 as an independent because at the time the Muslim Brotherhood were an outlawed political organization. Morsi as an Muslim Brotherhood presidential candidate was a very attractive proposition to U.S. ideologues who wanted to overthrow the Assad Regime because the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) has tried to assassinate Assad’s father and enforce Islamic rule in Syria, almost 50 years ago. The MB consequently were outlawed in Syria many years ago.

Actions in Morsi’s Presidency which offended Egypt.

A longterm and fervent Muslim Brotherhood activist, during his presidency  he granted  himself universal executive powers, and removed his office from judicial review. After making his first official foreign visit to Saudi Arabia, who with the Unites States supports the jihadist in Syria, Morsi went to  an Islamist rally attended by Salafi clerics who declared holy war against Bashar al-Assad’s regime.  He also expelled the Syrian embassy and closed the country’s embassy in Cairo. Recently exact actions have been undertaken in the United States,wherein Syrian ambassadors have been expelled, and the U.S. Syrian embassy closed.

The Armed Forces of Egypt did not back Morsi in his intention or his actions, and the Egyptian  people erupted in a popular uprising, whereby the U.S.  also saw the raid on the three NGO’s, the NDI, the IRI, and Freedom House, all of which receive funding from the State Department of the United States. Morsi is currently on trial for inciting unrest and violence, and is accused of engaging in espionage activities.  The charge of espionage activities may be related to relationships discovered between Morsi, the MB and the United States NGOs.

With this raid, the NGOs”  professed benevolent cover was discredited worldwide.  Developing countries are  in the uncomfortable position of having to be wary of the very democratic agencies they want to align with in order  to support the creating of internal democratic infrastructures in their own nation-states.

This is the concern of the CIS, and of  their investigative committees which reported on activities leading up to  the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004-05, and the Tulip Revolution in Krygystan.   In the article reporting on the CIS Anti-Terrorism Committee findings, The website posted that:

“[the Committee] noted the activity of NGOs ahead of well-known events in Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine,” Interfax reported Novikov as saying. Novikov referred to the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 and the “Tulip Revolution” which ousted Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev in 2005.” ” 

Reported by, Novikov said that these activities present a threat  to constitutional order and that destabilizing states through political and military means are becoming the standard of operations (SOP) of implementing   foreign policy objectives.

According to the Anti-Terrorist Committee, NGOs Standard of Operation Proceedure to effect regime change or policy interference seems to be  !. stage a political event such as a protest, and 2. then have a military component to intensify the protest to 3. facilitate that decisions will be made under extreme duress whereby 4. events could be directed by diplomatic types such as Assistant Secretary of State of European and Eurasian affairs Victoria Nuland and Jeffrey Pyatt, ambassador to Ukraine, and Anne Patterson ambassador to Egypt.

Reminds me of that movie mob scene in the ThreePenny Opera, written by Bertolt Brecht, music by Kurt Weil.

Three Penny Opera Poster

Three Penny Opera Poster


For more on this story please go to:


Commissioner’s Lin Letter to Queen Victoria regarding Opium Trade

Modern History Sourcebook: Commissioner Lin: Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839 

Lin Tze Szu

Lin Tze Szu


Queen Victoria at 20 in 1939

Queen Victoria at 20 in 1939








Lin , high imperial commissioner, a president of the Board of War, viceroy of the two Keäng provinces, &c., Tang, a president of the Board of War, viceroy of the two Kwang provinces, &c., and E., a vice-president of the Board of War, lieut.-governor of Kwangtung, &c., hereby conjointly address this public dispatch to the queen of England for the purpose of giving her clear and distinct information (on the state of affairs) &c.

It is only our high and mighty emperor, who alike supports and cherishes those of the Inner Land, and those from beyond the seas-who looks upon all mankind with equal benevolence—who, if a source of profit exists anywhere, diffuses it over the whole world—who, if the tree of evil takes root anywhere, plucks it up for the benefit of all nations;—who, in a word, hath implanted in his breast that heart (by which beneficent nature herself) governs the heavens and the earth! You, the queen of your honorable nation, sit upon a throne occupied through successive generations by predecessors, all of whom have been styled respectful and obedient. Looking over the public documents accompanying the tribute sent (by your predecessors) on various occasions, we find the following: “All the people of my country, arriving at the Central Land for purposes of trade, have to feel grateful to the great emperor for the most perfect justice, for the kindest treatment,” and other words to that effect. Delighted did we feel that the kings of your honorable nation so clearly understood the great principles of propriety, and were so deeply grateful for the heavenly goodness (of our emperor):—therefore, it was that we of the heavenly dynasty nourished and cherished your people from afar, and bestowed upon them redoubled proofs of our urbanity and kindness. It is merely from these circumstances, that your country—deriving immense advantage from its commercial intercourse with us, which has endured now two hundred years—has become the rich and flourishing kingdom that it is said to be!

But, during the commercial intercourse which has existed so long, among the numerous foreign merchants resorting hither, are wheat and tares, good and bad; and of these latter are some, who, by means of introducing opium by stealth, have seduced our Chinese people, and caused every province of the land to overflow with that poison. These then know merely to advantage themselves, they care not about injuring others! This is a principle which heaven’s Providence repugnates; and which mankind conjointly look upon with abhorrence! Moreover, the great emperor hearing of it, actually quivered with indignation, and especially dispatched me, the commissioner, to Canton, that in conjunction with the viceroy and lieut.-governor of the province, means might be taken for its suppression!

Every native of the Inner Land who sells opium, as also all who smoke it, are alike adjudged to death. Were we then to go back and take up the crimes of the foreigners, who, by selling it for many years have induced dreadful calamity and robbed us of enormous wealth, and punish them with equal severity, our laws could not but award to them absolute annihilation! But, considering that these said foreigners did yet repent of their crime, and with a sincere heart beg for mercy; that they took 20,283 chests of opium piled up in their store-ships, and through Elliot, the superintendent of the trade of your said country, petitioned that they might be delivered up to us, when the same were all utterly destroyed, of which we, the imperial commissioner and colleagues, made a duly prepared memorial to his majesty;—considering these circumstances, we have happily received a fresh proof of the extraordinary goodness of the great emperor, inasmuch as he who voluntarily comes forward, may yet be deemed a fit subject for mercy, and his crimes be graciously remitted him. But as for him who again knowingly violates the laws, difficult indeed will it be thus to go on repeatedly pardoning! He or they shall alike be doomed to the penalties of the new statute. We presume that you, the sovereign of your honorable nation, on pouring out your heart before the altar of eternal justice, cannot but command all foreigners with the deepest respect to reverence our laws! If we only lay clearly before your eyes, what is profitable and what is destructive, you will then know that the statutes of the heavenly dynasty cannot but be obeyed with fear and trembling!

We find that your country is distant from us about sixty or seventy thousand miles, that your foreign ships come hither striving the one with the other for our trade, and for the simple reason of their strong desire to reap a profit. Now, out of the wealth of our Inner Land, if we take a part to bestow upon foreigners from afar, it follows, that the immense wealth which the said foreigners amass, ought properly speaking to be portion of our own native Chinese people. By what principle of reason then, should these foreigners send in return a poisonous drug, which involves in destruction those very natives of China? Without meaning to say that the foreigners harbor such destructive intentions in their hearts, we yet positively assert that from their inordinate thirst after gain, they are perfectly careless about the injuries they inflict upon us! And such being the case, we should like to ask what has become of that conscience which heaven has implanted in the breasts of all men?

We have heard that in your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severity:—this is a strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is to mankind. Since then you do not permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drug transferred to another country, and above all others, how much less to the Inner Land! Of the products which China exports to your foreign countries, there is not one which is not beneficial to mankind in some shape or other. There are those which serve for food, those which are useful, and those which are calculated for re-sale; but all are beneficial. Has China (we should like to ask) ever yet sent forth a noxious article from its soil? Not to speak of our tea and rhubarb, things which your foreign countries could not exist a single day without, if we of the Central Land were to grudge you what is beneficial, and not to compassionate your wants, then wherewithal could you foreigners manage to exist? And further, as regards your woolens, camlets, and longells, were it not that you get supplied with our native raw silk, you could not get these manufactured! If China were to grudge you those things which yield a profit, how could you foreigners scheme after any profit at all? Our other articles of food, such as sugar, ginger, cinnamon, &c., and our other articles for use, such as silk piece-goods, chinaware, &c., are all so many necessaries of life to you; how can we reckon up their number! On the other hand, the things that come from your foreign countries are only calculated to make presents of, or serve for mere amusement. It is quite the same to us if we have them, or if we have them not. If then these are of no material consequence to us of the Inner Land, what difficulty would there be in prohibiting and shutting our market against them? It is only that our heavenly dynasty most freely permits you to take off her tea, silk, and other commodities, and convey them for consumption everywhere, without the slightest stint or grudge, for no other reason, but that where a profit exists, we wish that it be diffused abroad for the benefit of all the earth!

Your honorable nation takes away the products of our central land, and not only do you thereby obtain food and support for yourselves, but moreover, by re-selling these products to other countries you reap a threefold profit. Now if you would only not sell opium, this threefold profit would be secured to you: how can you possibly consent to forgo it for a drug that is hurtful to men, and an unbridled craving after gain that seems to know no bounds! Let us suppose that foreigners came from another country, and brought opium into England, and seduced the people of your country to smoke it, would not you, the sovereign of the said country, look upon such a procedure with anger, and in your just indignation endeavor to get rid of it? Now we have always heard that your highness possesses a most kind and benevolent heart, surely then you are incapable of doing or causing to be done unto another, that which you should not wish another to do unto you! We have at the same time heard that your ships which come to Canton do each and every of them carry a document granted by your highness’ self, on which are written these words “you shall not be permitted to carry contraband goods;” this shows that the laws of your highness are in their origin both distinct and severe, and we can only suppose that because the ships coming here have been very numerous, due attention has not been given to search and examine; and for this reason it is that we now address you this public document, that you may clearly know how stern and severe are the laws of the central dynasty, and most certainly you will cause that they be not again rashly violated!

Moreover, we have heard that in London the metropolis where you dwell, as also in Scotland, Ireland, and other such places, no opium whatever is produced. It is only in sundry parts of your colonial kingdom of Hindostan, such as Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Patna, Malwa, Benares, Malacca, and other places where the very hills are covered with the opium plant, where tanks are made for the preparing of the drug; month by month, and year by year, the volume of the poison increases, its unclean stench ascends upwards, until heaven itself grows angry, and the very gods thereat get indignant! You, the queen of the said honorable nation, ought immediately to have the plant in those parts plucked up by the very root! Cause the land there to be hoed up afresh, sow in its stead the five grains, and if any man dare again to plant in these grounds a single poppy, visit his crime with the most severe punishment. By a truly benevolent system of government such as this, will you indeed reap advantage, and do away with a source of evil. Heaven must support you, and the gods will crown you with felicity! This will get for yourself the blessing of long life, and from this will proceed the security and stability of your descendants!

In reference to the foreign merchants who come to this our central land, the food that they eat, and the dwellings that they abide in, proceed entirely from the goodness of our heavenly dynasty: the profits which they reap, and the fortunes which they amass, have their origin only in that portion of benefit which our heavenly dynasty kindly allots them: and as these pass but little of their time in your country, and the greater part of their time in our’s, it is a generally received maxim of old and of modern times, that we should conjointly admonish, and clearly make known the punishment that awaits them.

Suppose the subject of another country were to come to England to trade, he would certainly be required to comply with the laws of England, then how much more does this apply to us of the celestial empire! Now it is a fixed statute of this empire, that any native Chinese who sells opium is punishable with death, and even he who merely smokes it, must not less die. Pause and reflect for a moment: if you foreigners did not bring the opium hither, where should our Chinese people get it to re-sell? It is you foreigners who involve our simple natives in the pit of death, and are they alone to be permitted to escape alive? If so much as one of those deprive one of our people of his life, he must forfeit his life in requital for that which he has taken: how much more does this apply to him who by means of opium destroys his fellow-men? Does the havoc which he commits stop with a single life? Therefore it is that those foreigners who now import opium into the Central Land are condemned to be beheaded and strangled by the new statute, and this explains what we said at the beginning about plucking up the tree of evil, wherever it takes root, for the benefit of all nations.

We further find that during the second month of this present year, the superintendent of your honorable country, Elliot, viewing the law in relation to the prohibiting of opium as excessively severe, duly petitioned us, begging for “an extension of the term already limited, say five months for Hindostan and the different parts of India, and ten for England, after which they would obey and act in conformity with the new statute,” and other words to the same effect. Now we, the high commissioner and colleagues, upon making a duly prepared memorial to the great emperor, have to feel grateful for his extraordinary goodness, for his redoubled compassion. Any one who within the next year and a half may by mistake bring opium to this country, if he will but voluntarily come forward, and deliver up the entire quantity, he shall be absolved from all punishment for his crime. If, however, the appointed term shall have expired, and there are still persons who continue to bring it, then such shall be accounted as knowingly violating the laws, and shall most assuredly be put to death! On no account shall we show mercy or clemency! This then may be called truly the extreme of benevolence, and the very perfection of justice!

Our celestial empire rules over ten thousand kingdoms! Most surely do we possess a measure of godlike majesty which ye cannot fathom! Still we cannot bear to slay or exterminate without previous warning, and it is for this reason that we now clearly make known to you the fixed laws of our land. If the foreign merchants of your said honorable nation desire to continue their commercial intercourse, they then must tremblingly obey our recorded statutes, they must cut off for ever the source from which the opium flows, and on no account make an experiment of our laws in their own persons! Let then your highness punish those of your subjects who may be criminal, do not endeavor to screen or conceal them, and thus you will secure peace and quietness to your possessions, thus will you more than ever display a proper sense of respect and obedience, and thus may we unitedly enjoy the common blessings of peace and happiness. What greater joy! What more complete felicity than this!

Let your highness immediately, upon the receipt of this communication, inform us promptly of the state of matters, and of the measure you are pursuing utterly to put a stop to the opium evil. Please let your reply be speedy. Do not on any account make excuses or procrastinate. A most important communication.

P. S. We annex an abstract of the new law, now about to be put in force.

“Any foreigner or foreigners bringing opium to the Central Land, with design to sell the same, the principals shall most assuredly be decapitated, and the accessories strangled; and all property (found on board the same ship) shall be confiscated. The space of a year and a half is granted, within the which, if any one bringing opium by mistake, shall voluntarily step forward and deliver it up, he shall be absolved from all consequences of his crime.”

This said imperial edict was received on the 9th day of the 6th month of the 19th year of Taoukwang,  at which the period of grace begins, and runs on to the 9th day of the 12th month of the 20th year of Taoukwang, when it is completed.


From: Chinese Repository, Vol. 8 (February 1840), pp. 497-503; reprinted in William H. McNeil and Mitsuko Iriye, eds., Modern Asia and Africa, Readings in World History Vol. 9, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), pp. 111-118.

Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg.

This text is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use of the Sourcebook.

© Paul Halsall, October 1998

Russia A True Friend To Enemies

Ancient Russian Map C 16th

Ancient Russian Map C 16th

Don’t know much about this map, but I like old maps and couldn’t resist putting it up here. In news yesterday we heard that Russia decided to demand payment of gas fees that Ukraine owes it.  We heard from such media sites such as Reuters  that the Russian Federation  is using this as a type of leverage in order to try and force Ukraine into its orbit somehow.  Looking at the primary sources that documents the decision making process, a more complex picture emerges. In fact President Putin had this to say of  the circumstances the Russian Federation found itself in:

The situation is certainly strange, to put it lightly, because, as you know, our partners in Europe recognise the legitimacy of today’s authorities in Kiev, but are not doing anything to support Ukraine – not a single dollar, not a single euro. The Russian Federation does not recognise the legitimacy of the powers in Kiev, but continues to provide economic support and still subsidises Ukraine’s economy with hundreds of millions and billions of dollars. Naturally, this situation cannot continue indefinitely, but I want to note again that we must act very carefully, without destroying the little that is still left.”

Apparently when Ukraine received the first bond payment of 3 billion dollars, it was already in arrears 1.2 billion dollars for gas fees.  Not only that, trade stipulations between the two countries require that Russia delivers  certain commodities before they receive payment.  A situation like this has put Ukraine in a deficit with Russia to the tune of about 16.5 billion dollars.  And there is no guarantee that shipments going the other way will be, in the future, fulfilled so Putin has directed entities within Russia to  gear up to alleviate a possible failure to supply defense parts and other similar imports from Ukraine. While Prepayment is an option that  Prime Minister Medvedev introduced as a topic, President Putin directed his team to wait and see, reminded them that they must act very carefully.

Meanwhile the Russia’s partners in United States and Europe refuse to hold constructive discussions with Russia as they seem convinced that Russia is planning to annex eastern areas of Ukraine.

To read the entire disposition yourself go to

So does Crimea have a precedent of sorts. the answer is yes. Tranistra under G.W.Bush also held a referendum, with U.S. led similar results.  Study the following maps and we will report on the recent past in the next blog.


See the country of Moldava (Moldavie); On the eastern edge of it is transnistra, a region that has a large Russian Population that also wants to align with Russia.